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During early 1990s, Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute realized a decisive role played by Communication in promoting human development in today’s new climate of social change.

The institute, found itself moving and directing its role of technology development towards greater decentralized on farm activities involving consumers of the findings.  This left little to do with on-station trials.

These changes created another vital role to Researchers.  Simply to say, they have changed their role from on station researchers to client oriented scientists. In order to come up with successful results they now need to stimulate client’s awareness, participation and enhance their capabilities.

So, the need to have its own communication media arised.  Through Cashew Research Programme, the Institute established Audio Visual Unit with a role of documenting technology development processes stages step by step and disseminating the outputs to the needy but not assuming the role of extension workers.

During early 2000s, the Government decentralization process strengthened the idea of establishing a Communication Unit.  The functions and activities of Regional Publicity officers for Lindi and Mtwara Regions were shifted to Naliendele to form Zonal Communication Centre (ZCC) for Southern Zone.

Although the main role of ZCC was to document and disseminate agricultural information and technologies to farmers and stakeholders in the Southern Zone, no doubt over 80 per cent of the activities were done in favor of Naliendele Research Institute.  The headquarters of ZCC – maybe the famous old saying- ‘charity starts at home’ implied.

During a half a decade to say, ZCC has witnessed a number of issues coming into focus as central to development in the Zone - there was a remarkable people’s participation in implementing their decisions.

The major thrust of the Centre has been and will continue to be reduction or elimination of rural people’s reliance on traditional knowledge and practices which are based on strictly survival or subsistence life.   In such a situation, ZCC, found itself changing communication techniques and styles beyond simple question – and answer interviews

It taped meaningful discussions generated by community members in their interactions with experts, edited and disseminated to communities using radio, TV and print media. 

The centre has gained an enormous experience in working with Researchers. Extension Officers and Rural people.  In practical terms, the views of the rural people guide research or extension programme as they ties directly to what farmers really want and where capabilities and needs lie.


Over the last five years, the use of Radio and other electronic media has grown considerably in the Zone.

The zone now can access to information clearly from Radio Tanzania now TBC Taifa, Radio Free Africa, Radio One and Zonal Broadcasts from Lindi.

 Establishment of Television Booster Stations at Lindi for TBC1 and Mtwara  for Channel Ten have made it possible for people, especially in urban areas, to view television broadcasts using simple in-house antennae.  Other TV stations like TVT, Pulse, East African TV etc are viewed through satellite dishes.

Radio Programme Production.

Radio is known for its rapid spread of information and coverage over a large area at the same time.  The zone capitalized on this merit and used to disseminate Cashew based technologies nationwide and at Zonal level for other crops and Livestock management practices/techniques.

Korosho Radio Programme

This Programme was sponsored by Cashewnut Board of Tanzania (CBT) in collaboration with Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute.  CBT had a role of meeting operational costs and Naliendele provided technical expertise in terms of programme production and  technologies as well as planning and implementation in relation to field operations (crop calendar).

Programmes are broadcasted on weekly basis.  They are aired once without a repeat in a documentary format of 15 minutes.  A total of 216 programmes were produced over a period of five years and broadcasted on Radio Tanzania. 

Impact:  Prompt listeners survey indicated that programmes on Cashew resulted into formation of listener’s groups with regular tuning habits.

Zonal Radio

In the past, the ZCC used Zonal Radio Studios in Lindi for recording programmes to be broadcasted in Dar es Salaam.  With inadequate resources disbursed by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Cooperatives, the Zone booked a permanent air time in the name of “NGUZO YETU” to broadcast Zonal Agricultural issues not covered by Korosho Programme.  This programme faced a lot of financial problems.  Only 12 fifteen- minute grogrammes on unions agricultural subjects have been broadcasted since it started in year 2006.

Radio Interviews

ZCC has a role of ‘feeding’ Ukulima wa Kisasa, at the Ministry’s heart, with materials for editing and later broadcasting on Radio Tanzania through one of the oldest farmers’ documentary programmes in the country – MKULIMA WA KISASA.

Over a period of five years a total of 19 interviews were conducted and sent to Ukulima wa Kisasa.

Video Production, Shows and TV Broadcasts

Use of media materials such as video programmes which feature rural people themselves have proved to be useful and faster in bringing changes and a sustainable development to farmers in the zone. 

Video Production

Production of video film dates backs to 1990s.  The British ODA which supported research brought a few audio visual equipments including a hand camera.  Some recording were made in the field, edited and shown to farmers.  It was inspirational not only to local people, even Scientists were made to believe that audio visual aids such video episodes was a credible communication media to pass message across, keep field situation alive whenever you view it and, most important as a management tool for those who finance/decision makers.

Over a period of three years from 2002, the unit grew to encouraging heights through, purchase of audio visual equipments ranging from video camera to public address system for conducting video shows.  The following are video episodes edited to professional level as recorded up to the end of December 2007:

  1. Maonyesho ya Mbegu  (Swahili version)  -  Seed Fair..
  2. Biodiversing (Swwahili version)
  3. Kilimo cha Ufuta (Swahili – sub tiled in English) – Sesame Cultivation.
  4. Kilimo cha Karanga (Swahili – Sub titled in English) – Groundnut Cultivation.
  5. Establishing New Cashew Field (Swahili – Sub titled in English)
  6. Magongwa ya Korosho (Swahili – sub titked in English) Cashew Dieses.
  7. Wadudu wa Mikorosho (Swahili – sub titled in English )  Cashe Pests.
  8. Uboreshaji wa Mikorosho (Swahili version)  -  Cashew up-grading.
  9. Ubebeshaji wa Mikorosho (Swahili – sub titled in  English) – Grafting in Cashew
  10. Ziara ya Balozi Mchumo (Swahili version) – Mchumo visit Tanzania
  11. Ubanguaji korosho (Swahili version) – Cashew Processing
  12. Sisi wenyewe tutaijenga Ruangwa (Swahili)  Ruangwa will be built by ourselves
  13. Kilimo cha Mujarula (/Swahili) Bunding in Rice production
  14. Kilimo cha Vitunguu (Swahili) onion cultivastion.
  15. Kilimo cha Maksai (Swahili) Exenization.
  16. Usindikaji mihogo  (Swahili)  Cassava processing.

The use of these video episodes/films for presentation in meetings, public shows, TV broadcasts, Conferences and during Seed Fairs, Agriculture Shows and Field Days have greatly helped to disseminate technologies to many farmers as well as narrowing the gap between Naliendele Scientists field extension workers and farmers.

TV Programmes

Our main focus is rural people, rural situation and rural life.  But, again, the need arises to get those who do not access the rural to know what is exactly happening over there.  Through use of TV Broadcasts, we have made it possible for the general public and, most important, policy makers informed about advisements and needs of farmers/rural people.

The following episodes/documentaries were edited and aired by National TV station.

  1. Kilimo cha Maksai  (TVT)
  2. Kilimo cha Ufuta  (TVT)
  3. Ubebeshaji Miche ya Mikorosho (Star TV)
  4. Ziara ya Balozi Mchumo (Star TV)
  5. Mkutano wa Wadau wa Karanga (Star TV)
  6. Ufuta ni Mali (ITV)
  7. CFC Yasaidia Kuinua zao la Korosho (Star TV)
  8. Mfumo wa stakabadhi ghalani (ITV)
  9. Ununuzi wa Zao la Korosho 2007 (TVT)

Some of the edited video films were copied to farmer groups and the blossoming District Television stations.  This include Masasi and Tunduru Districts

Print Media

In five years of our existence(ZCC), we now believe that as you get different communication tools, you develop dynamic means to reach your audience and at the same time you gain the attention  of decision makers. 

Print media like brochures, magazines, newspapers, booklets, newsletters have proved very useful in terms of technology dissemination in a more permanent form.

The following publications were made up to the end of December, 2007.


  1. Kupanda mikorosho mipya (Establishment of New field)
  2. Kilimo cha Ufuta (Sesame cultivation)
  3. Kudhibiti Ungonjwa wa Matekenya ya Mihogo (Brown Streak Control)
  4. Ugonjwa wa Kuoza kwa Mihogo  (Brown Streak Control I)
  5. Mbegu za Mpunga aina ya TxD 220 306 (New rice Varieties)
  6. Jinsi ya Kudhibiti Mbu wa Mikorosho (Helopeltis Control in Cashew)
  7. Kilimo cha Karanga (Groundnut cultivation)
  8. Matumizi ya Mbolea Katika Kilimo cha Mpunga Bonde la Kitere na Kinyope (Use of fertilizers in Rice Production)
  9. Milibagi ya Mikorosho (Cashew Mealbug)
  10. Ufufuaji na Uboreshaji Shamba la Mikorosho (Upgrading Cashew field)
  11. Ubebeshaji wa Mikorosho (Grrafting in Cashew)
  12. Jinsi ya kudhibiti Ugonjwa wa Kideri) (NCD Control)
  13. Kupunguza Matawi ya Mikorosho Midogo (Formative Pruining)


  1. Kilimo cha Korosho (Cashew Cultivation  - Swahili)
  2. Kilimo cha Korosho (French)
  3. Kilimo cha Korosho (Portuguese)
  4. Mafanikio ya ZARF (Successes of Zonal Research Fund – Swahili)
  5. Prospectus (Shughuli za Naliendele -  English)
  6. Kilimo cha Mtama (Swahili) -Sorghum cultivation
  7. Kilimo cha korosho (English) -Cashew cultivation)
  8. Kustawisha Mahindi (Swahili)- Maize production
  9. Kilimo cha mihogo (Swahili ) – cassava cultivation
  10. Kilimo cha Mpunga (Swahili) – Rice Production
  11. Kilimo cha Karanga  (Swahili) – Groundnut production
  12. Ufugaji wa Mbuzi (Swahili)  -  Goat husbandry
  13. Kilimo cha minazi (/Swahili)  -  cocnut production
  14. Cashew cultivars of Tanzania (English)


  1. Integrated Cashewnut Management (English)


SANET (Southern Agriculture Network (English). Due to weak financial muscles, we managed to publish only one edition


  1. Ugonjwa wa kuoza kwa Mihogo (Brown streak Disease – Swahili.
  2. Matumizi ya Mkorosho (Cashew Tree Usage  - Swahili & English)
  3. Kudhibiti Ubwiri Unga (Oidium Control-Swahili)
  4. Kudhibiti wadudu wa mikorosho (Cashew Pest control-Swahili)


Experience gained through working with rural communities, Training Institutions, Scientists, participation farmer groups, Extension workers and other Stake holders reveals the following:

Ø      Communication is useful or to say successful when it is part of the core strategy to set development principles

Ø      Communication plays a very meaningful role when it is used to support training workshop papers (presentations) and participating farmers groups.

Ø      Multi media give best result (use of different media & channels at the same time).

Ø      When communication is used to en-cooperate into a development programme in an ad hoc manner the results are often not good because there would be no time for conducting a communication research, laying down clear objectives, message designs and choice of relevant channel.

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